Nipah virus total guide
Epidemiology Nipah virus
Virus disease is endemic to South Asia, sporadic epidemics have been reported in Malaysia, Singapore, India
Clinical description Nipah virus
The incubation period usually varies between 4 and 20 days. Patients may have severe illness, headache, myalgia, throat irritation, sore throat, nausea and vomiting, sometimes accompanied by vertigo and disorientation. Severe cases progress to encephalitis, which can be complicated by convulsions and coma. Atypical pneumonia sometimes leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome. Asymptomatic infections have been reported. Cases of recurrence occurring several weeks or months after healing have also been known. Neurological sequelae such as persistent seizures and personality or mood disorders appear in 20% of surviving patients.
Etiology Nipah virus
The Nipah virus is part of the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Henipavirus. Fruit-eating bats, the reservoir of the virus (genus Pteropus) can infect humans directly from their exposure or excretion, which includes contaminated food, mainly from the skin of palms. Bats can also transmit the virus to intermediate hosts, especially pigs. Serologic markers of infection have also been found in cats, dogs and horses. Pig farmers and slaughter workers have increased their risk of infection. A transmission to be reported in a case box, on the corporals of infected persons.
Diagnostic method (s) Nipah virus
The usual diagnostic modalities of cell culture (4), serological serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFI), and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) . These tests were tested in the following tests.
Differential diagnosis (s) Nipah virus
NIPA is difficult to distinguish from febrile illnesses. The most common causes of viral pneumonia, adenovirus and influenza should be excluded, as well as viral encephalitis, especially Japanese encephalitis (see this term) which can also be transmitted by pigs.
Management and treatment Nipah virus
Patients must be isolated and specified to avoid nosocomial transmission (protective masks, surgical masks, double benefits, surgical gowns and aprons). In case of antiviral treatment currently available for Nipah virus disease, the treatment is supportive. Ribavirin has been used in some patients, but its efficacy has not yet been determined.
Prognosis Nipah virus
The mortality rate varies between 40 and 70%, depending on the presence or absence of events or demonstrations. Older age, underlying diabetes and the presence of neurological symptoms make the prognosis worse