Malnutrition

Malnutrition

Malnutrition

Different forms of malnutrition
Malnutrition results in an imbalance between nutrient intakes and
needs of the organization. When these contributions are insufficient, the body weakens. The
fat disappears first, then the muscles gradually melt. Malnutrition can also
be the result of an excess of one or more essential nutrients, during a period
extended.
Within the UN, the two agencies that deal with malnutrition are Unicef and
World Food Program (WFP). Unicef is mandated to take more
especially in charge of severe acute malnutrition and WFP chronic malnutrition
(although Unicef has a response device for this form of malnutrition) and acute
moderate.
There are two main forms of malnutrition: acute malnutrition and malnutrition
chronic.
Acute malnutrition
20 million children are affected by this form of malnutrition in the world.
It is detected when the weight / size ratio is evaluated.
Exterior sign: “He is too thin”
High prevalence between 0 and 24 months.
Acute malnutrition is developing rapidly, in connection with a specific situation of
lack or repeated lack (lean period, severe epidemic, change
suddenly or repeated in the diet, conflict …)
There are two types of acute malnutrition: acute moderate and severe acute

  • Moderate acute malnutrition
    Moderate acute malnutrition is characterized by moderate weight loss.
    The response of Unicef:
    Food made from flour products (80% corn and 20% soy), enriched with
    minerals and vitamins.
    For cases of moderate acute malnutrition, hospitalization is not necessary.
  • Severe acute malnutrition
    The severe acute malnutrition is characterized by a very important weight loss. A child
    whose arm circumference is less than 111 mm (measured by the brachial strap) a
    likely to be severely acutely malnourished.
    Severe acute malnutrition is responsible for most deaths of children under the age of
    5 years in the world. She is the subject of a medical emergency and requires
    fast and efficient charging. As in cases of chronic malnutrition, the child has
    Acute malnutrition faces a very high risk of diseases (diarrhea, malaria …)
    and mortality.
    Among the forms of acute malnutrition, two types are extremely serious.
  • The marasmus: the child seems very emaciated, his skin is withered.
  • Kwashiorkor: the appearance of edema, especially on the feet and face.
    The response of Unicef:
    Milk formulas such as F100 or F75 allow recovery
    effective nutrition thanks to their high protein and nutrient content. Malnutrition
    acute severe requires consultation for diagnosis of the child in nutritional center.
    Hospitalization is mandatory in cases of severe acute malnutrition with
    medical complications (infections of any kind). If there is no complication
    the child can be cared for in the family home, feeding all the children
    days of ready-to-use therapeutic foods of the Plumpy’Nut type, which
    meet the daily needs of the child in micronutrients very quickly (about 5
    weeks).
    Every week, a monitoring of the nutritional status of the child is carried out in a nutritional center.
    It is at this point that ready-to-use therapeutic foods are provided to
    families for the rest of the week.
    Chronic malnutrition
    55 million children are affected by this form of malnutrition in the world.
    It is detected when evaluating the Size / Age ratio.
    Exterior sign: “He is small for his age”
    High prevalence between 24 and 36 months.
    Chronic malnutrition is slowly developing in relation to poverty
    structural change, especially when the diet is unbalanced (eg eating only
    cereals, without other foods, can cause chronic malnutrition).
    If a child is chronically malnourished for a prolonged period of time,
    will quickly suffer from stunted growth, compared to another child from his
    age. His immune defenses are very weak, and because of this, he is more confronted
    to the risks of diseases (diarrhea, malaria …).
    The response of Unicef:
    a) At the social level: Promotion of exclusive breastfeeding and a
    diversified diet. Exclusive breastfeeding is the primary source of
    vital micronutrients. During the first 6 months of the newborn’s life,
    breastfeeding helps to provide her with immune defenses, but also
    growth factors that are found nowhere else.
    (b) Health level: iodine and vitamin A supplementation for children.
    The body of children naturally lacks essential minerals (iodine, iron and zinc)
    and vitamin A. A prolonged lack of these elements leads to delays in
    growth and hampers the development and smooth functioning of the systems
    immune and reproductive. For pregnant women, Unicef ​​advocates
    iron and folic acid.

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