Hemoglobin is a protein of the blood system that is responsible for transporting oxygen from the lungs, to all tissues of the organism and to the respiratory system: In addition, it regulates the pH of the blood and collects the carbon dioxide to send it to the lungs. It is part of the red blood cells, and is responsible for pigmenting cells and giving color to red blood cells.

This protein is born in the bone marrow. It is part of the erythrocytes, of which each one must have approximately 32 picrograms of hemoglobin. There are 3 types of hemoglobin:

Type A: this represents almost 97% of the substance that is in the blood of an average adult, consists of two alpha globins and two beta globins. Start the production in the ninth week of gestation.
Type A2: only assumes 2.5% hemoglobin in the blood, and the numbers that are in the 12 months from birth.
Type F: Also known as fetal hemoglobin, it has the least presence in the bloodstream. It is composed of 1% in adults.
The alteration of hemoglobins can lead to blood diseases such as anemia and dehydration.


Main characteristics
Type of cell Red blood cells
Protein Class
Blood system system
Function of transport and carbon dioxide to tissues
Latin name Glob (balloon or blood cell) and ina (substance)
Normal values ​​Between 13.8 and 17.2 g / dl in men; 12.1 to 15.1 g / dl in women
What function do they have?
Hemoglobin is an important protein that inhabits the blood system. Its main function is to bring oxygen and carbon dioxide to the tissues, lungs and respiratory system. It is responsible for giving the blood red color, rounding off that color, recognizing health problems derived from hemoglobin levels.

This is a conjugated protein found in the erythrocytes and represents just over 30% of its weight. The process is recognized as oxyhemoglobin. When carbon dioxide is sent from the tissues to the lungs, it is known as deoxyhemoglobin. This process is what keeps a proper breath, because it eliminates unnecessary CO2 when breathing.

Recommended values
The recommended values ​​are:

Normal values ​​in an adult man Between 13.8 and 17.2 g / dL
Normal values ​​in an adult woman Between 12.1 and 15.1 g / dL
Normal values ​​in adolescents 12.0 g / dL
Normal values ​​in children 11.5 g / dL
Normal values ​​in pregnant women 11.0 g / dL or more
Hemoglobin is a large, strong and essential protein that blood and iron for the lungs. It has a molecular mass of 64,000 g / mol. When the protein has managed to increase the oxygen it transports to the lungs and releases it, it is known as the release of hydrogen ion.

In the year of 1,825 J.F. Engelhard discovered that the quantity as well as the oxygen as the iron that inhabits the hemoglobin of humans and animals is the same. At that time no scientist believed that the protein could be so big. 100 years later in 1925, the scientist Gilbert Smithson confirmed the theory of Engelhard.

Hemoglobin is a tetrameric substance and consists of four polypeptide chains and in each of them there is a heme group. One of these polypeptide chains is the part protected as globin, this is a good number of amino acids, then the group of hem that are divided into subunits are: Hb, A1, A2; and the fetus group is Hb F.

What is a hemoglobin count?
Counting the values ​​of hemoglobin in the blood is of utmost importance to know the functioning of the blood system and the organism. Hemoglobin plays one of the most essential roles in the bloodstream, specifically in red blood cells, to whom it gives the red pigment; which shows us the quality of the cell and transports us the oxygen necessary for the lungs and the respiratory system.

This test is done intravenously, and not only the hemoglobin values, but also the sample of the number of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Which are a set of cells that accompany the defenses of the immune system and the bloodstream.
What are the recommended levels by age range and sex?
The values ​​are measured depending on each person. This substance is responsible for removing carbon dioxide, and the numbers will be revealed from data such as age, sex, type of sporting life and food.

Children between 5 and 12 years old: 11.5 g / dL
Children between 12 and 16 years old: 12.0 g / dL
Adult men: 13.8 and 17.2 g / dL
Adult woman: 12.1 and 15.1 g / dL
Woman in pregnancy: 11.0 g / dL or more
What does it mean to have low levels of hemoglobin?
When in the blood study highlights data below 12.1 g / dL in adults, it indicates that our bloodstream is not producing the necessary red blood cells. This causes disease due to lack of vitamin B12, oxygen and iron in the blood, the most common is anemia.

Anemia is developed by producing weak red blood cells, this will cause fatigue, fatigue and muscle pain, which will cause a lack of attention and encouragement for those who suffer from the disease.

What are the causes of the decrease in hemoglobin?

The low production of this protein may be due to the following problems:

Malnutrition or low food consumption: Remember that we must have a balanced diet, when we lack a vitamin or protein such as iron and B12, we can have malnutrition and a low in the red cell.
Consumption of medicines: When there are problems such as HIV, many medications are consumed, which considerably decreases the production of red blood cells and therefore, hemoglobin.
Anemia, iron deficiency anemia and aplastic anemia: Poor nutrition can lead to diseases such as anemia, in which the lack of defenses floats. In the case of aplastic anemia, it is due to problems with the bone marrow, which prevents the production of red blood cells.
Menstruation: Sometimes menstrual periods last many days and are very strong, so the number of red blood cells decreases considerably.
Drug addiction
Problems with the bone marrow and diseases such as leukemia.

What does it mean to have high levels of hemoglobin?
It is recognized as high hemoglobin, to blood results higher than 17.2 g / dL. The most common causes of this high production of the protein, can be:

Dissemination of the bone marrow
High production of red blood cells, due to the lack of oxygen in very high places
Pulmonary or cardiac problems that force the production of the red cell
Consumption of certain hormones and cigarettes, can force the red blood cells to be altered in such a way that they will increase the values ​​of hemoglobin
The diseases that can cause this high production of hemoglobin, can be:

Heart problems
COPD or any disease linked to the respiratory tract
Lung diseases
Another disease that can develop due to high protein levels is diabetes. To recognize these problems, the glycosylated hemoglobin test must be performed.

When a person suffers from type 2 diabetes, the glycosylated test is performed to know the level of hemoglobin in their bloodstream. This test is also called HbA1c and the normal level should be 5.7%. If it exceeds that level, it is prone or with signs of diabetes. The higher the percentage of HbA1c, the higher the sugar in the blood and probably, the more advanced diabetes.

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