cancer/carcinoma symptoms and treatment
The disease can affect almost any body organ. The most common cancers found in North America are lung cancer, breast cancer
carcinomas are tumors that have formed in the outer or inner lining of internal organs (called epithelial tissue) and on the outer surface of the body;
leukemias are cancers of the constituent elements of the blood;
lymphomas are tumors that form in the lymphatic system;
Melanomas are cancers that start in cells that trigger pigmentation to the skin;
Sarcomas are tumors that are born in the connective tissue, such as muscles, bones, and cartilage
Mixed types of cancers have the characteristics of more than one category of cancer.
To ensure the growth of our body, some cells divide and multiply to create new tissues while other cells (such as those of the muscles or nerves) do not divide or multiply. Our body has specific genes, called oncogenes, that govern the capacity of divided and developed cells. Moreover, genes say tumor suppressor genes stop cells from their division process. Cancer occurs when oncogenes are “activated” at an appropriate time, or tumor suppressor genes are inactivated when they come into action. This results in excessive growth that takes the form of tumors.
Cancer cells go through different stages as they divide and multiply to form a tumor. At first, normal cells divide faster. This is called hyperplasia. In the second stage, called dysplasia, the new cancer cells become deformed. They then constituted a crescent of cells, called primitive tumor. The tumor begins to push and crush the neighboring cells. As she grows, she digs a path and invades neighboring cells – this process is called invasion. When cancer cells reach a blood vessel or ganglion, they can trap blood or lymphatic fluid to travel to other parts of the body where they are recommended. This process called metastasis, which means the cancer has spread to other areas of body.
More than any other disease, cancer is scary. Today, many cancers can be treated and put in remission. This means the treatment remove all traces of cancer of the body. For example, people with prostate cancer, bladder cancer, skin cancer, autopsy cancer or breast cancer have less than 80% of the chance of living without cancer 5 years after diagnosis is detected and treated as soon as possible. his beginnings
The exact cause of cancer is unknown, but different factors may play a role in this process. Although the genetic factors have been associated onlywith some forms of cancer, even less than 10% of cancers are hereditary. Less than the 10% of breast cancers are associated with mutated genes these called BRCA1 and BRCA2. These above two hereditary genes are responsible for about 50% of hereditary forms of breast cancer.
Most forms of cancer are caused by genetic mutations in cells that occur during a person’s life, influenced by environmental factors such as smoking or exposure to radiation. Here are few of the environmental factors that directly related to cancer:
smoking – smoking causes lung cancer; it is also associated with a higher risk of cancer of the mouth, larynx, esophagus, bladder
chemical substances – industrial dyes, asbestos
ionizing radiation – the link between ionizing radiation and cancer has already been established, but it is unknown how much radiation could increase the risk of cancer;
a virus – some viruses, such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, which causes AIDS), are associated with a higher risk of liver cancer, lymphoma
sunlight – prolonged exposure (eg tanning) causes skin lesions and may cause skin cancer.
Symptoms and Complications of cancer/carcinoma
Cancer can cause many different symptoms, depending on the type of cancer and the stage of the disease. Cancer cells crush or invade neighboring cells can cause heavy pain. Organs (such as the liver or pancreas) that are invaded by cancer can no longer function properly. Some symptoms, grouped as paraneoplastic syndromes, are not caused by the tumor itself but rather by the chemicals or hormones it secretes. These chemicals and hormones can cause an autoimmune reaction, where the body produces antibodies to fight against itself. It can also hinder the normal functioning of organs or kill healthy cells.
Some cancer complications can be life threatening. For example, because of cancer, the membranes surrounding the heart or lungs can be filled with fluid, making breathing very difficult. Cancer can also block veins that bring blood from the upper organs to the heart. This causes swelling of the veins in the chest and neck. Cancer can also put pressure on the spine or the connected nerves, causing pain or loss of nerve function. The longer the lesion lasts, the less likely it is to recover the function of a damaged nerve. Hypercalcemic syndrome (elevated calcium levels) occurs when a cancer produces a hormone that dangerously increases calcium levels in the body or when a cancer invades the bones significantly.
To make the diagnosis, cancer specialists or oncologists must evaluate the symptoms, perform a physical examination and request blood tests and x-rays. The only way to determine with certainty if the cells are cancerous is to take a tissue sample containing these cells, a process called biopsy. The laboratory staff then examines the cells under the microscope, and the information obtained from the biopsy allows the doctor to tell what is the type and stage of the cancer.
At the time of diagnosis, determining the stage of cancer helps define the prognosis and type of treatment a patient will receive. Doctors use a cancer classification system, called the TNM system, this describes the size of the tumor and its degree of spread in the body. The choice of treatment depends largely on the stage of the cancer.
Treatment and Prevention ofcancer/carcinoma
Some types of cancer can be prevented through lifestyle changes: this is what is meant by primary cancer prevention. Tobacco-related cancers (eg, lung cancer) account for almost one-third of all forms of fatal cancer. Therefore, quitting smoking would be an essential step in preventing cancers of the mouth, throat, esophagus
To treat cancer, surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy for certain forms of cancer drugs that block the secretion of hormones are used. Cancer treatment aims to kill cancer cells by avoiding, as much as possible, destroying healthy cells.
Surgery removes cancer cells that are grouped together. Many cancers are treated by surgery. Surgeons also remove the normal cells surrounding the cancer cells or the tumor to determine whether the cancer has spread or not. When the cancer has already spread, it is very difficult to remove the cancer cells using surgery.
Radiotherapy can treat localized cancers. Radiation therapy can take different forms. A beam of radiation directed at the skin near cancer site. Radiation anyhow kills cancer cells but also unfortunately, it also destroys healthy cells. Recently from last few years designed devices can better focus the radiation on cancer cells and leave healthy cells. Radioactive particles also be injected into the blood stream. These particles adhere to the cancer cells but not to those that are normal.