snake bite treatment

Animal bites (dog,cat monkey snake bites and snake bite treatment)

Animal bites are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide.
Globally, up to five million people are bitten each year by a snake, the majority of whom live in Africa and Southeast Asia.
To treat venomous snake bites, rapid medical treatment with the appropriate antivenom is required.
Dog bites
Dog bites are responsible for tens of millions of injuries each year, with children being the first victims.
Rabies, transmitted by dog, cat or monkey bites, is a major health concern.
Animal bites pose a significant public health problem for children and adults around the world. The health consequences of animal bites will depend on the type of animal species and the health of the animal, the size and health of the person being bitten, and the availability of access to the animal. appropriate care.

The human being can be bitten by a large number of animal species; however, the most severe bites are those caused by snakes, dogs, cats and monkeys.

Snake bites
Magnitude of the problem
Globally, up to five million people each year are victims of snakebites. Of these, venomous snake bites are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. An estimated 2.4 million envenomations (snake bite poisoning) and 94,000 to 125,000 deaths each year, with an additional 400,000 people needing to be amputated or suffering other serious consequences, such as infection, tetanus, scars, contractures and psychological sequelae. When access to care is difficult and there is a lack of antivenom, injuries and their outcome are more serious.

Who are the people most affected?
The majority of snakebites occur in Africa and Southeast Asia. They mainly affect people living in poor rural areas who live from low-cost, non-mechanized farming or small-scale farming. Farmers, women and children are the groups most frequently bitten by snakes. In addition to the burden of injury, families and communities must bear the brunt of their socio-economic impact. Adult victims are often the source of income for the family or caregivers of children or other members of the family unit; child victims can suffer life-long disabilities that will affect families and communities.

snake bite treatment
There are approximately 600 species of venomous snakes and about 50 to 70% of their bites cause envenomation. When a person is bitten, first aid consists of completely immobilizing the affected limb and quickly evacuating the person to a medical facility. A tourniquet and wound incision can aggravate the effects of venom and should not be part of first aid. It is common for snakebite victims to require an injection of antivenom. It is important that antivenom serum be adapted to snakes that are endemic to the area. Other measures include cleaning the wound to reduce the risk of infection, treating symptoms including providing respiratory assistance, and administering the tetanus toxoid vaccine to the patient before he or she returns home if he or she has not been properly vaccinated against tetanus.

Prevention of snake bites/snake bite treatment
To prevent snakebites, communities should be informed of the risk they represent and the prevention measures to be taken, including:

avoid walking in tall grass;
wear shoes or boots to protect themselves;
keep storage areas safe from rodents;
do not leave garbage, heaps of wood or brush near the house;
in the home, store food in rodent-proof containers, raise the beds, and securely secure the mosquito nets under the mattresses.
To prevent or limit the serious health consequences of snakebites, caregivers must be trained in the management of snakebites, including the proper use and safe administration of antivenoms. Public health authorities and policymakers need to ensure that communities, countries and regions most in need are provided with safe and effective antivenom serums, in sufficient quantities, and to prioritize research initiatives that will make it possible to determine more precisely the burden represented by these
Dog bites
Magnitude of the problem
No data on the incidence of canine bites are available worldwide, although studies suggest that they cause tens of millions of injuries each year. In the United States of America, for example, about 4.5 million people are bitten by a dog each year. Of these, nearly 885,000 consult a doctor; 30,000 use reconstructive surgery; 3 to 18% contract infections and between 10 to 20 deaths are regretted. In other high-income countries such as Australia, Canada and France, incidence and mortality rates are comparable.

Data available in low- and middle-income countries are more fragmented, but some studies show that dogs are responsible for 76-94% of animal-bite injuries. Dog mortality rates are higher in low- and middle-income countries than in high-income countries because rabies is a problem in many of these countries, and post-exposure treatment is not always administered or that access to care is insufficient. The number of people who die of rabies is estimated at 59,000 each year, and rabid dog bites are the cause of the vast majority of these deaths.

Who are the people most affected?
As a percentage, children are the first victims of dog bites, with the highest incidence occurring after infancy. The risk of injury to the head or neck is greater for children than for adults, resulting in more serious injuries, a greater need for medical treatment and higher mortality rates.

In some countries, men are more frequently victimized by dog ​​bites than women. These bites also account for more than 50% of the injuries inflicted by animals to travelers.

Treatment
The treatment depends on the location of the bite, the general state of health of the victim and the rabies vaccination status of the responsible dog. Key principles in care include:

medically take care of the victim quickly;
clean and rinse the wound thoroughly;
perform a primary suture of the wound if the risk of infection is low;
give antibiotics prophylactically for high-risk injuries or if the person is immunocompromised;
provide postexposure antirabies treatment based on the vaccination status of the animal;
administer the tetanus vaccine if the person has not been properly vaccinated.
Prevention of dog bites
Communities – children in particular – need to be aware of the risks of dog bites and how to prevent them: for example, do not approach stray dogs and never leave a child unattended with a dog, whatever.

Caregivers must be trained to be able to handle dog bites properly. Health authorities and policymakers must ensure rabies control in the canine population, an adequate supply of rabies vaccines to deal with rabies exposure in the population, and develop data collection systems so that the scale of the problem is better known.
Cat bites
Magnitude of the problem
Globally, cat bites account for 2-50% of animal bite injuries. They usually come after dog bites in terms of incidence. In Italy, for example, the incidence of cat-related injuries is 18 per 100 000 population, while in the United States of America, an estimated 400 000 cat bites and 66 000 resulting hospital emergency department consultations each year.

Who are the people most affected?
It is among women that we find the highest incidence.

Treatment
The treatment depends on the location of the bite and the rabies vaccination status of the animal that inflicted the bite. Key principles in care include:

medically take care of the victim quickly, including cleaning the wound;
administer antibiotics prophylactically to reduce the risk of infection;
provide postexposure antirabies treatment based on the vaccination status of the animal;
administer the tetanus vaccine if the person has not been properly vaccinated.
Prevention of cat bites
Communities need to know the risks of cat bites and how to prevent them, including vaccinating cats against rabies.

Caregivers must be trained to properly handle cat bites. Health authorities and policymakers must ensure that rabies control in the animal population, sufficient supplies of anti-rabies post-exposure treatment and antibiotic prophylaxis for people with bites are provided. They should also support research initiatives to provide more information on the extent of the problem.
The monkey bites
Magnitude of the problem
Monkey bites represent 2 to 21 wounds inflicted by an animal. In India, for example, two studies have shown that monkeys come just after dogs as the main source of animal bite injuries.

Who are the people most affected
Monkey bites pose a significant risk to travelers, as they are the second most common cause of animal bites in this population after dog bites.

Treatment
The treatment depends on the patient’s state of health, the location of the bite, and the suspicion or otherwise of rabies in the monkey causing the bite. Key principles in care include:

medically take care of the victim quickly, including cleaning the wound;
administer antibiotics prophylactically to reduce the risk of infection;
provide postexposure antirabies treatment based on the vaccination status of the animal;
administer the tetanus vaccine if the person has not been properly vaccinated.
Prevention of monkey bites
Communities and travelers need to be aware of the risks of monkey bites and how to prevent them.

Caregivers must be trained to deal appropriately with this type of injury. Health authorities and policy-makers need to ensure rabies control in monkey populations, sufficient supplies of post-exposure rabies treatment and antibiotic prophylaxis for people with bites. They should also support research initiatives to provide more information on the extent of the problem.

The work of WHO
WHO is taking action to address the public health problem of animal bites.

For snakebites, the Organization has developed several tools to assist in the development, distribution and administration of antivenoms.

For rabies, WHO is striving for better access to post-exposure treatment by encouraging increased production of anti-rabies biologics, ongoing training in rabies control and broad vaccination of dog populations.

For all injuries caused by animal bites, WHO:

prioritizes data collection initiatives to help determine the burden and risk factors for these injuries;
advocates the strengthening of emergency response services for those who are injured;
encourages research initiatives that focus on effective prevention interventions and the most affected populations.

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